Being burned out and being stressed out are not the same thing. Being burned out is not the same as dealing with Depression. And being stressed out can lead to being burned out and being burned out can lead to Depression. Many of us can tell when we are stressed out, but often, we cannot tell if we are burned out.
Burnout may be the result of unrelenting stress, but it isn’t the same as too much stress. Stress is often about too many pressures that need to be dealt with. Burnout is about feeling empty, lacking in motivation, and beyond caring. People experiencing burnout often don’t see any hope of positive change in their situations. You may be moving from stress to burnout if you experience very few ‘good’ days, if you have stopped caring about your work or home life, if you are exhausted all the time, if you are overwhelmed more days than not and if you feel like nothing you do makes a difference or is appreciated.
|Stress vs. Burnout|
|Characterized by over-engagement||Characterized by disengagement|
|Emotions are over-reactive||Emotions are blunted|
|Produces urgency and hyperactivity||Produces helplessness and hopelessness|
|Loss of energy||Loss of motivation, ideals, and hope|
|Leads to anxiety disorders||Leads to detachment and depression|
|Primary damage is physical||Primary damage is emotional|
|May kill you prematurely||May make life seem not worth living|
|Source: Stress and Burnout in Ministry|
What Is It
Burnout is a cluster of physical, emotional and mental exhaustion reactions. Researchers have categorized three main types of burnout:
“Frenetic” burnout often happens to people who are usually extremely ambitious and hardworking, to the point workaholism. Frenetic burnout is strongly correlated to the number of hours per week people work.
The “Underchallenged” form of burnout is likely to happen when people are not engaged, bored, lack stimulation, and have little or no room for personal growth. People suffering from this form of burnout tend to become cynical because of the dissatisfaction they feel. Studies reveal that people who work in administration and services were at higher risk for this variety.
The “Worn-out” variety of burnout tends to hit people who have been in their positions for long periods of time. They may feel that their work is not acknowledged or feel a lack control over their work. Those who were in the same position for at least 16 years had 5 times the likelihood of falling into this form of burnout.
Burnout is brought on by long term stressors and is characterized by exhaustion, depersonalization and inefficacy.
Work-related causes of burnout: The Maslach Burnout Inventory revolves around six categories:
- Workload: Too much work, or not enough resources,Working in a chaotic or high-pressure environment;
- Fairness: Discrimination or favouritism,Unclear or overly demanding job expectations (83% of employees report going to work sick because they’re afraid they’ll be punished for missing. Report);
- Control: Micromanagement, lack of influence, or accountability without power;
- Reward: Not enough pay, acknowledgment, or satisfaction;
- Community: Isolation, conflict, or disrespect;
- Values: Ethical conflicts or doing meaningless or monotonous tasks.
Lifestyle causes of burnout:
- Working too much, without enough time for relaxing and socializing
- Being expected to be too many things to too many people
- Taking on too many responsibilities, without enough help from others
- Not getting enough sleep
- Lack of close, supportive relationships
Personality traits can contribute to burnout:
- Perfectionistic tendencies; nothing is ever good enough
- Pessimistic view of yourself and the world
- The need to be in control; reluctance to delegate to others
- High-achieving, Type A personality
Whether burnout is due to stress, interpersonal conflict, frustration, lack of feedback or promotion, 27% of workers in 24 countries said they are not happy with the psychological aspects of their work environment. Even working for yourself can lead to burnout. Small business owners regularly forego free time (57%) exercise (37%) and personal priorities for their business.
Other Burnout Facts:
- 15% of employees are Clock Watchers. They are the most withdrawn from work and reported the highest levels of burnout (more than workaholics) Report
- People who don’t get deeply involved with their work are more likely to suffer burnout and have lower well-being. Report
- 90% of employees who struggled with personal problems didn’t receive support from employer. Canada Life Insurance.
- 33% of Canadians receive more info on a daily basis than they can process. Randstad Workmonitor Global Report, Mar 2012: http://www.randstad.com/press-room/research-reports
Often when it comes to burnout, we picture someone who is 40 or older and has been working for many years, but someone may be experiencing the symptoms of burnout even if they are as young as 30 years of age.
Some people experience burnout as a more sudden onset, while others perceive that something is changing and it may take several years to manifest. They may notice a lack of personal achievement and satisfaction at work. Going to work may feel like drudgery and their frustration levels may increase.
Physical signs and symptoms of burnout:
Emotional signs and symptoms of burnout:
Behavioural signs and symptoms of burnout:
Treatments and Strategies
Employees who are suffering from burnout feel they are powerless to change things and often blame others or the situation, rather than taking action for change.
There are two paths to dealing with burnout: The individual path and the organizational path.
- Slow Down. You need to force yourself to take a break. Cut back whatever commitments and activities you can. Give yourself time to rest, reflect, and heal.
- Change What You Can. Talking to your superiors about taking on more responsibilities if you’re under-challenged or restructuring your current ones if you’re overburdened might be a good idea. Take a proactive approach – rather than a passive one – to issues in your workplace.
- Maintain Balance. Having interests outside work can make your job stress feel less overwhelming. 37% of Canadians manage stress with music, 36% talk to friends and family, 36% read, and 33% exercise or work out.
- Talk to a Professional. If you’re still feeling lost, talk to someone – a psychologist, career counselor, consultant, or life coach – to help you get out of the rut and make a plan for change.
- Boost your skills. Some examples include: stress management, relaxation and meditation, assertiveness, time management and social skills training.
- Take time off. If burnout seems inevitable, take a complete break from work. Go on vacation, use up your sick days, ask for a temporary leave-of-absence—anything to remove yourself from the situation. Use the time away to recharge your batteries and get perspective.
- Talk to Your Supporters. Reaching out to friends, family, and peers can de-isolate you from your burnout. Simply sharing your feelings with another person can relieve some of the burden.
- Make a Plan. Part of the problem with burnout is the lack of control that’s associated with it. Re-evaluate your goals and priorities. Burnout can be an opportunity to rediscover what really makes you happy and to change course accordingly.
A 2010 study by Gallup’s James Harter that found that lower job satisfaction foreshadowed poorer bottom-line performance. And Gallup estimates that a staggering $300 billion is lost annually due to “employee disengagement.” Happy employees thrive for two basic reasons: They believe what they do at work makes a difference, and they are continually learning and gaining new knowledge and skills.
Organization-directed interventions take into consideration the impact that work environment has on employees. Burnout is not necessarily the consequence of an overly demanding workload. It can result from a variety of workplace situations such as employees viewing their work environment as unfair or from employees lacking control over their work. Organization-directed interventions typically have longer lasting effects than person-directed interventions when carried out alone. Each organization will have unique stressors and areas of improvement in which to target to improve psychological conditions. Common areas that are targeted in an effort to reduce or prevent burnout are:
- Employee Autonomy: Increasing control and decision making over work schedules, work load and work processes.
- Management style: Altering management styles to reduce micro-managing and top-down hierarchies and increase visibility, open communication, employee trust and collaboration.
- Training: Increasing employee competencies and providing opportunities for professional development.
- Social Culture/Environment: This can include reducing interpersonal conflict, increasing social support and team work, supporting work-life balance and aligning employee and company values.
- Acknowledgement: This includes instilling a fair effort and rewards system.
A study of employees with burnout found that they are less likely to participate in work-based interventions – such as stress reduction or occupational therapy/education – than their co-workers, but are more likely to be treated medically with antidepressants or anxiety drugs. In fact, the study found, workers with severe burnout were more than five times as likely to receive individual interventions, compared to those not suffering burnout.
Managers can still help by:
- Using employees to their full potential. Employees feel less withdrawn from work when they derive meaning from their work and their skills, knowledge and experience are fully utilized. Report
- Giving positive feedback and recognizing their achievements.
- Encouraging your employees to share their feelings and concerns. Talking with co-workers can help put an issue into perspective.
- Striving for success. Work groups that are constantly trying new ideas and taking risks seldom burn out.
It is a shame that many people quit a job that they use to love without realizing that they may have been able to prevent burnout from occurring in the first place. Burnout can be a serious consequence of an unbalanced life and of an environment where the individual experiences little control and high demands. Leaders can help by ensuring a clearer understanding of what their job is and is not, providing as much control as possible, ensuring that demands are realistic and by recognizing the employee’s contributions and achievements.
Side Bar: Stress Facts
- About 44% Canadians say they’ve coped with a mental health problem such as extreme stress, depression, substance abuse or schizophrenia
- Study of NA employees by Right Management asked to describe stress level at work. 64% high, 24% med, 11% low. www.worldatwork.org
- 29% of Canadians report being extremely or quite stressed overall. More women (32%) feel stressed than men (26%) and most stressed age group are those 18-34 years old. www.synovate.com 2009 06 Money-is-biggest-cause-of-stress-for-half-of-canadians-women-more-stressed-than-men-except-with-work
- 27% of working adults reported that, on most days, their lives were ‘quite’ or ‘extremely’ stressful. (Stats Canada, 2010)
- In 2009-2010, 78% of short-term disability claims and 67% of long-term disability claims in Canada were related to mental health issues. (Conference Board Of Canada)
- The Centre for Addiction and Mental Health estimates that mental health conditions are responsible for approximately 30% of all disability claims and 70% of the associated plan costs.
- Canadians Top Sources of Stress: Money 51%, Work 41%, Family 37%, Health 32%, Balance 27%, Relationships 24%, Moving 12%, Studying 10%, Friends 8%, Travel 6%.
- 1 in 10 Americans say they are likely to fall asleep at an inappropriate time and place, such as during a meeting or while driving. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120304141858.htm
- 1 in 6 Canadians report that they are more moody/irritable when stressed, 1 in 2 sleep difficulties, 1 in 3 eat more. www.synovate.com 2009 06 Money-is-biggest-cause-of-stress-for-half-of-canadians-women-more-stressed-than-men-except-with-work
- 10% of Canadians are impacted by chronic sleep issues
- Canada Life: The work performance of 85% of employees has been affected by work, health and personal pressures. http://www.covermagazine.co.uk/cover/news/2158430/lifestyle-affects-80-employees
- Employees in Canada are more likely than their global counterparts to call in sick if they feel stressed, according to a survey conducted by Harris Interactive for The Workforce Institute and 71% of Canadians said they did so due to feeling stressed or just needing a day off work; http://www.benefitscanada.com/benefits/health-wellness/canadians-most-likely-to-call-in-sick-for-stress-20159
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